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  • Data provided here have been collected as part of the project "Measurements and Improved Parameterization of the Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flow through First-Year Sea Ice", OPP-0126007* and include measurements of temperature and various ice properties at selected sites in first-year and multiyear sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica in the years 2002-2004. Data from earlier installations of thermistor chains for measurements of ice temperature carried out by the New Zealand team have also been included. Data files are in Microsoft Excel format, with individual worksheets for specific cores or temperature data sets. Detailed information and comments on data sampling location etc. are provided in the files. Further information on data collection, results etc. can be found in the following publications: Backstrom, L. G. E., and H. Eicken 2007, submitted, Capacitance probe measurements of brine volume and bulk salinity in first-year sea ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. Pringle, D. J., H. Eicken, H. J. Trodahl, and L. G. E. Backstrom 2007, submitted, Thermal conductivity of landfast Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res. Trodahl, H. J., S. O. F. Wilkinson, M. J. McGuinness, and T. G. Haskell 2001, Thermal conductivity of sea ice; dependence on temperature and depth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1279-1282. Data are in Microsoft Excel format. Abbreviations: AH = Arrival Heights; CH = Camp Haskell (near Delbridge Islands); VUW = Victoria University Wellington; UAF = University Alaska Fairbanks. RELATED PUBLICATION: https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2022.108 GET DATA: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1ooUH9dPvWT66afFC51Cb0JOHg66rn0sy

  • In Antarctica, ice shelves such as the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) fringe 75% of the coastline and cover over 1.5 million km2, creating distinct and largely unexplored marine environments. It is fundamental to characterize the communities under these shelves to understand their biogeochemical role and predict how they might respond to future ice-shelf collapse 1,2. While historical studies suggested the RIS harbors active microorganisms 3–5, nothing is known about the composition of these communities. In this study, we profiled the composition, function, and activities of microbial communities in three seawater samples (400, 550, 700 m depth) underlying the shelf interior. We combined rate measurements with multi-omics (i.e. single-cell genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics). Overall, below-shelf waters harbour microbial communities of comparable abundance and diversity to deep pelagic waters. Based on the meta-omic data, the community is inferred to be sustained by dark carbon fixation using ammonia, nitrite, and sulfur compounds as electron donors. In turn, these chemolithoautotrophs are predicted to support the aerobic heterotrophic majority and various trophic interactions. Consistently, this study and previous activity measurements suggest that dark carbon fixation is sufficient to sustain prokaryotic heterotrophic production, making the waters below the RIS presumably the largest chemolithotrophic system in the global ocean. Further details are provided at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27769-5 GET DATA: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB35712 GET DATA: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/?term=PRJNA593264

  • The Antarctica New Zealand Adelie Penguin Census Survey opportunistically took aerial images with a helicopter of known Emperor colonies on Ross Island and across the Victoria Land coastline. These files provide the locations of the colonies surveyed in the 2023/24 season. Geopackage and KML files were created in QGIS, and the coordinates were later used to create the GeoPDF files which were used for helicopter navigation to the colonies.

  • Raw images (over approximately 20.000 unique images) collected during the Adelie Penguin Census across 30+ colonies since 1981 (see associated metadata resource for list full list of colonies). Photographs were taken using a black and white film camera from 1981 to 2004 (inclusive) and 2008. Images are available in .tif fomrat. Images are digital from 2005 onwards (except 2008). Raw images are available in cr2/cr3 formats, and processed images are available across tif and jpg formats. High resolution scanning was initiated in 2011 to scan all the negatives in the collection. There are approximately 10,000 negatives in the collection. Images are taken from helicopter at between 2000-2500 feet. All images collected during the 2324 season are georeferenced with latitude and longitude positions in decimal degrees (WGS 84). Camera Settings: ISO = 400 Shutter speed = greater than 1/1000 Focus = manual, pre-focus to 800m Lens = 135mm with UV filter Aperture/ Exposure = F8 (or up to F11) Image Size = Full size White Balance Setting = Daylight Captures per minute = ~80 GET DATA: m.meredyth-young@antarcticanz.govt.nz

  • Two automated weather stations operates at Cape Adare . The station was established in 2014 and continues to transmit live data. Data are logged every 30 minutes. Time plotted is UTC+12. Cape Adare Ridge (-71.30498, 170.23253) Cape Adare Beach (-71.30820, 170.19580) Parameters: - Barometric Pressure (mbar) - Water Content - Surface (m^3/m) - Temperature – Surface (Deg C) - Temperature – Air (Deg C) - Relative Humidity - Air (%) - Solar Radiation (W/m^2) - Wind Speed (m/s) - Wind Gust Speed (m/s) - Wind Direction (true bearing degrees) GET DATA: adminteam@antarcticanz.govt.nz

  • The Antarctica New Zealand Adelie Penguin Census Survey takes aerial images with a helicopter of known penguin colonies on Ross Island and across the Victoria Land coastline. These files provide 36 adelie colony locations. The KML and GeoPackage files both include the same 36 colony locations. Note: colony coordinates are missing for Chinstrap Island, Franklin Island East, and Thala Island. Geopackage and KML files were created in QGIS, and the coordinates were later used to create the GeoPDF files which were used for helicopter navigation to the Adelie penguin colonies.

  • As part of the Scott Base Redevelopment Marine Monitoring Programme, the impact of Scott Base's activities on the local marine environment was assessed. Sampling took place at three sites around Hut Point Peninsula on the southern half of Ross Island during October – November 2019 to assess anthropogenic contamination. Two acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP; Nortek Signature 500) were deployed, and set with a 2-minute sampling period in 1m vertical depth bins from the seabed to the underside of the ice. Instrument heads were kept ~0.5 m beneath the under-surface. ADCP data were downloaded, extracted from their raw formats, and averaged into 10-minute intervals. A magnetic declination of 141.09° E was applied to the measured current direction to correct the readings to reflect true north and a pressure offset was applied to standardise depths relative to ambient air pressure at the seawater surface. Information on habitats and benthic epifauna assemblage composition were collected using high resolution video across 2 25m transects at ~22m depth. Multiple overlapping passes were made across the seabed transects at ~0.5 m depth contours between ~20 – 26 m in order to create a 2D orthomosaic image of each site. Analysis of the diver-collected video was done using individual frames. The video along each transect was divided into 10 equal time segments and still frames were taken at random from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth segments. Eight video frames were analysed per transect (i.e., n=8 per transect and n=16 per site) by one individual to minimise observer bias. Sediment samples were collected by divers to determine contaminant concentrations and sediment characteristics (sediment particle size composition, organic matter content, organic carbon content and algal pigment content) at each site. Sponge species (Sphaerotylus antarcticus and Laternula elliptica) were collected for tissue contaminant analysis. Full description of methods is available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-023-03181-1 GET DATA: drew.lohrer@niwa.co.nz

  • Data of apparent ice thickness from airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of fast ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, carried out in Nov/Dec 2009, 2011, 2013, 2016, and 2017. Values are given for apparent thicknesses derived from both, in-phase and quadrature signals. The difference between both thicknesses is a scaled measure of sub-ice platelet layer thickness. Data are from east-west transects across McMurdo Sound, at fixed latitudes. Data were smoothed and interpolated onto a regular longitude grid (0.001 degree increments). More information can be found in: Haas, C., Langhorne, P. J., Rack, W., Leonard, G. H., Brett, G. M., Price, D., Beckers, J. F., and Gough, A. J.: Airborne mapping of the sub-ice platelet layer under fast ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 15, 247–264, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-247-2021, 2021

  • This metadata record represents the data for generated by mining single-cell genomic, transcriptomic, and metagenomic data to uncover the viral diversity, biogeography, activity, and their role as metabolic facilitators of microbes beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. Hot drilling and seawater sampling was conducted from the sub-shelf water column in the central region of the RIS (Latitude −80.6577 N, Longitude 174.4626 W). The sampling site was located ≈300 km from the shelf front. A borehole (30 cm diameter) conducted by hot water drilling was used for direct sampling of seawater from three depths (400 m, 550 m, and 700 m from the top of the shelf, which correspond to 30 m, 180 m, and 330 m from the bottom of the ice shelf, respectively). Seawater samples were processed accordingly for single cell genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics as described5, and the resulting assembled and co-assembled contigs (min. length 1 kb) from single-amplified genomes, bins and transcriptomics were mined for detecting viral contigs. Further details are provided at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-44028-x GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.24581331

  • Here we present physico-chemical data collected during two research cruises conducted to and across the Ross Sea, Antarctica in the summer of 2018 (February-March) and 2019 (January-February). The dataset includes measurements of temperature, salinity, oxygen, par and transmissivity obtained with a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 911plus CTD. The CTD sensor was configured with SBE 3plus, SBE 4, and SBE 43 dual sensors for the parameters above, in addition to a seapoint fluorescence sensor, and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensor (Biospherical Instruments QCP‐2300L‐HP). These data were used to provide oceanographic context to DNA metabarcoding analysis of 18S rRNA V4 region that was carried out on DNA samples collected in parallel to nutrient and chlorophyll-a samples. Fastq samples from DNA metabarcoding analysis and the associated metadata (including nutrients, Chlorophyll-a, and size-fractionated chlorophyll-a) were deposited to GenBank under project numbers PRJNA756172 (2018 cruise) and PRJNA974160 (2019 cruise). The study resulting from this analysis has been submitted to Limnology and Oceanography. RELATED PUBLICATION: Cristi, A., Law, C.S., Pinkerton, M., Lopes dos Santos, A., Safi, K. and Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A. (2024). Environmental driving forces and phytoplankton diversity across the Ross Sea region during a summer–autumn transition. Limnol Oceanogr. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.12526