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  • A sea level recorder and barometer was installed at Scott Base in January 2001 initially to support oceanographic and hazards research (including tsunami) and to support hydrographic surveying. The sea-level recorder is a nitrogen bubbler system with a paroscientific pressure transducer located on a bottom-mounted spigot of the osmosis boom (to enable lifting for maintenance), that ensures the orifice always returns to the same point. Sea level and atmospheric pressure and temperature are recorded at 5 minute intervals and stored every 24 hours. Each year the rise and fall of the sea ice is observed over a 2-3 day period during a spring tide using GPS. These measurements are related to a tide gauge benchmark and the sea surface to enable the reliability of the tide gauge to be checked. GET DATA: https://sealevel-data.linz.govt.nz/index.html?tidegauge=SCOT

  • A tide gauge was installed in November 1990 and has been in near continuous operation since. A 10 minute average of water depth was recorded each hour with hourly averages of wind speed and direction, air temperature and solar radiation. From 2000 the recording frequency was increased from every hour to every 10 minutes. From 2003 data is read every 10 seconds and an average value (from 60 readings) is calculated every 5 minutes and recorded. Barometric pressure was measured as well, starting in 2003, with six barometric pressure readings made between 2 and 3 minutes in the 5-minute interval and averaged and recorded with the tide value. Each year the rise and fall of the sea ice is observed over a 2 - 3 day period during a spring tide using GPS. These measurements are related to a tide gauge bench mark and the sea surface to enable the reliability of the tide gauge to be checked. The tide gauge data is archived by Land Information New Zealand. GET DATA: https://sealevel-data.linz.govt.nz/index.html?tidegauge=ROBT

  • Ultraviolet radiation measurements over the spectral region 290-450 nm with a high precision spectro-radiometer. The spectro-radiometer was installed at Arrival Heights as a two month (November 2006 – January 2007) blind inter-comparison with the established measurement programme run by Biospherical Instruments for the USAP. The data was compared with the USAP data taken simultaneously. These data are held internally by NIWA. GET DATA: contact dan.smale@niwa.co.nz

  • The WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Scott Base in November 2015 by Dr. James Brundell and Ms. Emma Douma as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K060-1516-A. The sensor measures the electric field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz) and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The antenna is located behind the Hatherton lab. It was installed due to increasing manmade electromagnetic noise levels in the "quiet zone" at Arrival Heights. The observations from this antenna are now the primary WWLLN feed from Ross Island, the Arrival Height's magnetic field antenna is now a backup. WWLLN, uses the VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the Scott Base measurements. WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

  • The network collects Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for the purposes of monitoring the New Zealand Geodetic Datum 2000 (NZGD2000), updating the national deformation model, and maintaining New Zealand’s relationship to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Antarctic GNSS data form part of the New Zealand campaign GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) surveys. Data have been collected by periodic campaign style GNSS surveys. High accuracy continuous Global Positioning System tracking stations in Antarctica: - Scott Base (SCTB - LINZ Geodetic Code) and was operational as of 29 October 2004. - Butcher Ridge (BURI- LINZ Geodetic Code) on 7 December 2007. - Minna Bluff (MIN0- LINZ Geodetic Code) on 31 January 2007. - Cape Roberts (ROB4- LINZ Geodetic Code) on 29 November 2005. Data are available in Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) files at 30 or 15 seconds sampling rate. GET DATA: https://www.geodesy.linz.govt.nz/positionz/?page=text GET DATA: https://www.linz.govt.nz/products-services/geodetic/positionz/positionz-real-time-service

  • Measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) made with a Microwave Chlorine Monoxide Millimeter Wave Spectrometer (ground-based). The instrument (ClOe1) was established in January of 1996 at Scott Base and decommissioned in October 2023. A replacement radiometer (ClOe4) was installed at Scott Base in February 2023 (an overlap in the data for timeseries continuity purposes). These data are produced in collaboration with State University of New York (SUNY) Stoney Brook and Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). “Raw” data are times and recorded microwave emission spectra. “Derived” data are column amounts and vertical profile information of chlorine monoxide (ClO). The instrument has acquired the nickname "CloeTechnique" for vertical profile information uses "optimal estimation" to extract information from pressure broadening of ClO emission line. Significant failure in early 2018 only fixed in November 2018. No data in the July - October 2018 period. Data is held at NRL and in the NDACC database. Data are available as monthly .ndm files, and additional metadata are available in the header. Instrument timeline: - ClOe1 1996-2023 - ClOe4 2023 – present GET DATA: https://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/ndacc/data.html?station=scott.base#

  • Gas samples (CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, 13CO2, 14CH4, 13CO, C18O, 14CO) are collected from an inlet atop of a mast 5 metres above ground level in North sector wind conditions. Flasks and cylinders are analysed back at NIWA Greta point Gaslab. The sampling was established in November 1989. Samples are only taken when wind is from the Northerly sector and above 5kts. High pressure cylinders: ~1600psi in 30 litre cylinders and low-pressure flask samples taken (~5 litres, 25 psi in 2 litre flask). Air samples in the Cylinders & Flasks shipped to New Zealand regularly. Analysis performed at NIWA's GASLAB located at Greta Point Wellington. Analysis by Gas chromatography (GC) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). A semi-automated flask sampling system was installed in February 2017, allowing extra flask samples with minimal operator intervention. GET DATA: Contact Gordon Brailsford (g.brailsford@niwa.co.nz)

  • The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069a. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations. The secondary experiment, WWLLN, uses exactly the same VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the "Scott Base" measurements made at Arrival Heights or near the Hatherton Lab (depending on noise levels). WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with standard WWLLN software, with GPS timing. GET DATA: https://wwlln.net/

  • Our studies investigate the Antarctic middle atmosphere’s response to natural and man-made factors which change climate. The dynamical processes of this region are significant in controlling the circulation at lower altitudes, including the stratospheric ozone layer. The feedbacks in the atmosphere, couple this change to climate change at the surface. The seasonal behaviour of this wave-driven circulation, particularly its dependence on major disturbances in the stratosphere which result in the transport of energy and momentum by waves to higher altitudes are examined. The programme is based on continuous monitoring of winds in the middle atmosphere at altitudes of 60-100km using a ground-based medium frequency radar located at Scott Base. The Scott Base radar has been recording wind measurements since 1982 and is one of the longest duration climate records of this type of data in the world. The measurements made by the Scott Base MF radar provide valuable climate information about how the flow in the middle atmosphere (70-100 km) has changed. This record along with observations from satellite instruments allows the coupling between the middle atmosphere and the surface over Antarctica to be examined, this coupling is often associated with wave-like motions in the atmosphere that the MF radar is particularly good at observing. The circulation is dominated by pole-to-pole flow, from the summer pole to the winter pole. This circulation is largely driven by atmospheric waves with time scales from 15 minutes to 15 days. The large scale of the phenomenon benefits considerably from co-operative observations by our own radar near Christchurch, and by our US colleagues at the South Pole, Admiral Heights (from January 2000) and Tekapo. We also use satellite data for the region between Antarctica and New Zealand. This type of study is important because improvements in the predictive ability of the current generation of climate models may be particularly sensitive to the coupling processes that we examine.

  • Measurements of boundary layer concentration of ozone are made with insitu instruments that samples air continuously at Arrival Heights, Antarctica and is part of the NOAA Global Monitoring Surface Ozone Network. Original measurements at Arrival Heights were made with a Dasibi Environmental Corp in situ analyser. This was replaced with a TEI-49c in situ analyser. The TEI-49c is owned by NOAA and operated by NIWA at Arrival Heights until October 2023. In October 2023 operation of the TEI was transferred to the USAP Arrival Heights laboratory along with operational responsibility (between NOAA and USAP). This data set contains continuous UV photometric data of surface level ozone collected at 6m above ground level. Data records consist of UTC time, date, and processed ozone mixing ratio (parts per billion). Data is collected from global locations and is provided in 1 minute and 1 hour averages. Data are archived at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), but are produced and available from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). Instrument timeline: - Dasibi 1997-2003 - TEI49c 2003 – October 2023 - TEI49i November 2023 -present at USAP Arrival Heights laboratory GET DATA: https://gml.noaa.gov/aftp/data/ozwv/SurfaceOzone/ARH/