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  • Active fault traces mapped using 1 m resolution Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR) Data commissioned in 2013 by Greater Wellington Council. The revised mapping is focused on previously-mapped faults and near towns in the Wairarapa Valley. From these fault traces, Fault Avoidance Zones have been developed for faults in and around the main towns and selected previously mapped faults, and Fault Awareness Areas for the remainder. The mapping was undertaken for land use planning purposes as one natural hazard dataset for a revision of the Combined District Plan. Cite data as: Litchfield, N. J., Coffey, G. L., & Morgenstern, R. (2022). Active fault mapping for the South Wairarapa, Carterton and Masterton Districts. Lower Hutt (NZ): GNS Science. 59 p. (GNS Consultancy report; 2021/117). GNS Science.

  • Geological timescales are the frameworks that geologists use to assign ages to units of rock. This is probably one of the most fundamental concepts in geology and its allied fields, including paleontology and evolutionary studies. It is a basic requirement for many things, such as: • assigning geological age to rocks, fossils and economic minerals; • calibrating the rates of geological processes such as fault displacement and plate rotation, submergence, uplift and erosion of the land, earthquake frequency and volcanic activity; • measuring rates of climate change, sea-level change, biodiversity change and organic evolution; • the search for natural resources. Age indicators used to develop timescales are various, but the oldest and still most frequently used approach is to recognise rocks of similar age by the fossils they contain. The first geological timescales were developed in Europe, and these are gradually being consolidated into an international geological timescale which is expanded and updated every few years. Many areas of the world, however, have highly endemic fossils – just as countries like New Zealand have highly endemic plant and animal biotas today – and it is hard to relate the geology of these places to the international framework. Like many of these places, New Zealand uses the international scheme for the major units (Jurassic, Cretaceous, and so on) and for rocks which are not well represented in our own country, but adopts a more convenient local scheme, based on our own endemic fossils, for the smaller time divisions. Our New Zealand geological timescale has been under development since the earliest days of geological research in the country, in the late nineteenth century, although perhaps the greatest advances occurred through the 1940s to 1960s. A huge amount of related knowledge was collected together and published in 2004, in a monograph edited by Roger Cooper and published by GNS Science. Access is available online from the GNS Science web site. Like all scientific endeavours, timescales are continually revised as new knowledge comes to hand. Most commonly, these revisions apply to the absolute age calibrations of the time units. Although fossils are a useful way to quickly tell that two different bodies of rock are of similar age, they cannot – on their own – tell us exactly how old that is. Various events, such as the “first” (oldest) occurrence of a particular fossil shell, have to be calibrated using some technique, such as radiometric dating, to find out how many years ago the event took place. Unfortunately, calibration usually requires that numerous factors happen to be “just right” in order to be accurate. Consequently, new data comes to hand slowly, over many years. DOI: Cite data as: GNS Science. (2004). New Zealand Geological Timescale [Data set]. GNS Science.

  • We present an excel spreadsheet tool called TaupōInflate and its user documentation. TaupōInflate is an easy-to-use and freely available tool to calculate and plot ground deformation from magmatic inflation at depth beneath Taupō caldera. It can be used to assess potential sources of inflation associated with unrest events at Lake Taupō. It can also be used as an educational resource for exploring general questions such as the likelihood of detecting inflating magma bodies beneath the lake. Last updated: June 2022 (minor bug fix in dike vector plot) DOI: Cite data as: GNS Science. (2022). TaupōInflate: An Excel spreadsheet to calculate ground deformation from magma inflation at Lake Taupō [Data set]. GNS Science.

  • GeoNet's network of strong motion stations has evolved into a more sophisticated network that captures the strong ground shaking in New Zealand. This network delivers an ensemble of data products including raw and processed data. The GeoNet strong motion data products are available for earthquakes of magnitude 4.0 and above, including time series, response spectra, peak ground motions and Fourier Spectra. As part of the re-development of these products, this dataset is available in two groups: [1] Volume products for earthquake events from 1966 to 2021 [2] Geocsv products for earthquake events from 1999 onwards More details available herein: Improving our strong motion services: Overview on volume products: For data access: [1] Strong Motion Tool ( [2] GeoNet data site ( This dataset is funded through DOI: Cite dataset as: GNS Science, GeoNet Strong Motion Data Products.

  • The GeoNet Aotearoa New Zealand Glossary of Data-related terms is a glossary used within the GeoNet programme. The Glossary is a set of terminologies adapted and used to define in a generalized form and plain language terms and concepts associated with the generation of GeoNet data products. This dataset is funded through DOI: Cite as: GNS Science. (2021). GeoNet Aotearoa New Zealand Glossary of Data-related terms [Data set]. GNS Science.