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  • We present 60 years of Δ14CO2 measurements from Wellington, New Zealand (41°S, 175°E). The record has been extended and fully revised. New measurements have been used to evaluate the existing record and to replace original measurements where warranted. This is the earliest atmospheric Δ14CO2 record and records the rise of the 14C “bomb spike”, the subsequent decline in Δ14CO2 as bomb 14C moved throughout the carbon cycle and increasing fossil fuel CO2 emissions further decreased atmospheric Δ14CO2. The initially large seasonal cycle in the 1960s reduces in amplitude and eventually reverses in phase, resulting in a small seasonal cycle of about 2 ‰ in the 2000s. The seasonal cycle at Wellington is dominated by the seasonality of cross-tropopause transport, and differs slightly from that at Cape Grim, Australia, which is influenced by anthropogenic sources in winter. Δ14CO2 at Cape Grim and Wellington show very similar trends, with significant differences only during periods of known measurement uncertainty. In contrast, Northern Hemisphere clean air sites show a higher and earlier bomb 14C peak, consistent with a 1.4-year interhemispheric exchange time. From the 1970s until the early 2000s, the Northern and Southern Hemisphere Δ14CO2 were quite similar, apparently due to the balance of 14C-free fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the north and 14C-depleted ocean upwelling in the south. The Southern Hemisphere sites show a consistent and marked elevation above the Northern Hemisphere sites since the early 2000s, which is most likely due to reduced upwelling of 14C-depleted and carbon-rich deep waters in the Southern Ocean. This developing Δ14CO2 interhemispheric gradient is consistent with recent studies that indicate a reinvigorated Southern Ocean carbon sink since the mid-2000s, and suggests that upwelling of deep waters plays an important role in this change. DOI: Cite as: Turnbull, J. C., Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E., Ansell, I., Brailsford, G. W., Moss, R. C., Norris, M. W., and Steinkamp, K.: Sixty years of radiocarbon dioxide measurements at Wellington, New Zealand: 1954–2014, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14771–14784,, 2017.

  • The Stable Isotope Laboratory (SIL) LIMS Database, is for recording and storing all information related to the Mass Spectrometers and Laser stable isotope data of 2H,18O,15N, 34S, 13C results pertaining to samples received by SIL since 2006. Data generated from the Stable Isotope Laboratory is also stored in other databases both within GNS and outside it such as NZGAL, Water Dating Laboratory, Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory, Universities, and other Geological institutes around the world. DOI: Cite as: GNS Science. (2021). Stable Isotope Laboratory Information System (SIL LIMS) [Data set]. GNS Science.

  • Updated DSDP, ODP and IODP borehole locations, related metadata and links back to host site data repositories. Generated from kml files available at