From 1 - 8 / 8
  • The moment tensor describes the source parameters of an earthquake such as the focal mechanism (the geometry of how the crust ruptured in the earthquake) and the seismic moment (the amount of energy released). Since August 2003 when sufficient broadband seismometers were deployed, GeoNet has been able to routinely compute moment tensor solutions for New Zealand earthquakes with M > ~4. The CSV file of moment tensor solutions is updated when a moment tensor solution is calculated. DOI: 10.21420/MMJ9-CZ67 Cite as: GNS Science. (2006). New Zealand Earthquake Moment Tensor solutions [Data set]. GNS Science, GeoNet.

  • The National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) for New Zealand provides probabilistic estimates of the strength of earthquake shaking that can be expected according to a user-defined time period and probability, e.g. the peak ground acceleration (PGA) that has a 10% chance of happening in any 50 year time window. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) uses the location, recurrence behaviour, and predicted ground motions of earthquake sources to estimate the hazard at a site, or across a grid of sites as shown in the map below for Class C (shallow soil) site conditions. The NSHM is an algorithm that draws upon several component models to calculate its results. It uses a fault model that combines New Zealand’s active fault database, which includes 536 fault sources, and the 170 year historical earthquake catalogue. The background model is comprised of a multi-layered background seismicity grid DOI: Site as: GNS Science. (2020). National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) for New Zealand. GNS Science.

  • The Petroleum / Mineral / Coal Reports dataset is one of six datasets that make up the Bibliographic Database. Under the Crown Minerals Act, these reports are submitted to the New Zealand government by holders of prospecting, exploration or mining permits and become publicly available at some stage. Records for and online links to the petroleum / mineral / coal reports are available through the Online Exploration Database ( of NZ Petroleum & Minerals (NZP&M). Equivalent records for the petroleum / mineral / coal reports were created in the GNS Science Bibliographic Database in order to facilitate the discovery of these items when GNS Science staff search the Bibliographic Database. Links are provided to most of the petroleum reports. In addition, GNS Staff can search for petroleum reports using the Petroleum Report Search webpage ( where links are also provided either to a copy held by GNS Science or to a copy held by the NZ government. Every indexed report has a unique BIB ID number in addition to its assigned PR (petroleum), MR (mineral) or CR (coal) number.

  • The Theses dataset is one of six datasets that make up the Bibliographic Database. The Theses dataset is a New Zealand geoscience bibliography that includes: 1) theses undertaken within all Geology and Earth Science Departments in New Zealand universities, regardless of whether on a New Zealand or overseas topic; 2) theses with substantial original research in solid earth sciences (including soils but excluding, meteorological and atmospheric and ocean studies) undertaken in other departments in New Zealand universities; 3) theses with substantial original research in the solid earth sciences of New Zealand undertaken in overseas universities; 4) theses completed by GNS Science staff or visitors. Every indexed thesis has a unique BIB ID number. Note it is not a complete record for NZ theses.

  • This database contains references and abstracts of geoscience publications relevant to New Zealand geoscience, including all GNS staff scientific papers and books, and all GNS publications. The Bibliography is produced by GNS Information Services, updated weekly, and is available as a live database search. These references and abstracts are provided free of charge to assist geoscience research in New Zealand. For more refined searching, subscribe to GeoRef or Knowledge Basket, both of which also contain New Zealand geoscience records. For access to the full article if your organisation does not have a subscription, you may use your local library to interloan the item, or GNS publications may be purchased from us.

  • This dataset contains Biome-BGC v4.2 model outputs of national pasture production forced with present day and 4 future projected CO2 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP past, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) taken from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Meteorological inputs used to run the model were downscaled from six different General Circulation Models (GCMs): BCC-CSM1.1, CESM1-CAM5, GFDL-CM3, GISS-EL-R, HadGEM2-ES, and NorESM1-M. Outputs are provided for two different parameterizations of the Biome-BGC model to describe New Zealand’s two dominant types of pasture, dairy and sheep. The model was run at each point on NIWA’s Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN), a 5 x 5 km national grid. The data consists of daily outputs at each grid box of net primary productivity (NPP), gross primary productivity, net ecosystem productivity (NEP), evapotranspiration (ET), water outflow, evaporation, transpiration, and soil water content, spanning 1971 – 2005 (RCP past) or 2006 – 2100 (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5).

  • The National Paleontological Collection (NPC) is one of the “Nationally Significant” collections and databases recognised by the New Zealand government. In addition to systematic reference collections of macro- and micro-fossil taxa from New Zealand and surrounding areas, including Antarctica and New Caledonia, the NPC includes a large number of type and figured specimens, as well as some important historical collections and a small amount of foreign reference material. Notably, the NPC also hosts the only International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Micropaleontological Reference Centre located in the Southern Hemisphere. The collection is housed at the GNS Science Avalon campus. Catalogue information is digital and available online. Information pertaining to the type material is accessible to the public from the GNS Science web site. DOI: Cite as: GNS Science. (2008). National Paleontological Collection (NPC) [Data set]. GNS Science.

  • Tsunami simulation model, such as COMCOT, solves a set of discretized mathematical equations that govern the physical processes of tsunami generation by various sources, propagation over ocean basin, run-up and inundations in coastal areas. The source code of a tsunami simulation model is a collection of a human-readable programming codes/statements that are translated from the discretized mathematical equations through a programming language, e.g. FORTRAN. Together with a suitable compiler, the source code can be further converted into an executable binary application, e.g. a numerical simulation program (model). This executable binary may run on various platforms, e.g. Windows or Linux systems. Continuous validations are often carried out by model developers and other researchers to identify potential bugs, errors, and validate its accuracies against analytical analyses, results from other established models, laboratory experiments, and field observations from real tsunami events. Pre- and post-processing scripts for a tsunami model are often independent of the model’s source code. They are developed to prepare input data for a tsunami simulation model, further process and visualize output data files of tsunami model simulations, e.g. to create inundation maps. These scripts may also be used to convert a tsunami model’s proprietary data formats into other commonly used formats, e.g. GIS-compatible formats such as ESRI ARC ASCII, or vice versa. MATLAB and Python are two commonly used programming languages for these scripts. For example, MATLAB has been used to develop a set of data processing scripts for COMCOT tsunami simulation model. COMCOT-API is a set of Python-based Application Programming Interface (API) scripts that augments and drives the COMCOT tsunami simulation model. This enables full automation of parameter studies and development of an algorithm for probabilistic hazard assessment with COMCOT as the tsunami simulation kernel. The API manages simulations on clusters with different queuing systems, farms simulation scenarios out to clusters and collects data after simulation completion. It also creates non-uniform slips as input to tsunami simulations, based on fault geometry and scaled with earthquake magnitude. User manuals provide detailed descriptions about tsunami models, including their underlying mathematical equations, numerical discretization schemes, programming languages, software/hardware requirements, parameter setup, input and output data, example simulations, and sometimes validations. DOI: Cite as: GNS Science. (2020). Tsunami Models Source Code, Scripts and Manuals. GNS Science.