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  • The WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Scott Base in November 2015 by Dr. James Brundell and Ms. Emma Douma as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K060-1516-A. The sensor measures the electric field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz) and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The antenna is located behind the Hatherton lab. It was installed due to increasing manmade electromagnetic noise levels in the "quiet zone" at Arrival Heights. The observations from this antenna are now the primary WWLLN feed from Ross Island, the Arrival Height's magnetic field antenna is now a backup. WWLLN, uses the VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the Scott Base measurements. WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

  • The network collects Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for the purposes of monitoring the New Zealand Geodetic Datum 2000 (NZGD2000), updating the national deformation model, and maintaining New Zealand’s relationship to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Antarctic GNSS data form part of the New Zealand campaign GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) surveys. Data have been collected by periodic campaign style GNSS surveys. High accuracy continuous Global Positioning System tracking stations in Antarctica: - Scott Base (SCTB - LINZ Geodetic Code) and was operational as of 29 October 2004. - Butcher Ridge (BURI- LINZ Geodetic Code) on 7 December 2007. - Minna Bluff (MIN0- LINZ Geodetic Code) on 31 January 2007. - Cape Roberts (ROB4- LINZ Geodetic Code) on 29 November 2005. Data are available in Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) files at 30 or 15 seconds sampling rate. GET DATA: https://www.geodesy.linz.govt.nz/positionz/?page=text GET DATA: https://www.linz.govt.nz/products-services/geodetic/positionz/positionz-real-time-service

  • In collaboration between Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the North of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.360083, lon:164.748633) on 12 December 2014 as a part of the ANA05A research cruise, and it was recovered on 10 December 2015. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/1a10def2-13e7-4829-b46d-07bebb748ce2

  • Diatom census counts were used to quantitatively estimate summer sea-surface temperatures (SST) over the last 40,000 years in core MD11-3353, collected in 2011 on board the R.V. Marion Dusfresne west of Kerguelen Island, Southern Ocean. The transfer function used to reconstruct summer (January to March) SST is the Modern Analog Technique that here uses 249 surface sediment samples (modern analogs), the relative abundances of 32 diatom species and the chord distance to select the five most similar modern analogs (Crosta et al., 2020). This method yields a root mean square error of prediction of ~1 °C. The core chronology is detailed in Thöle et al. (2019). RELATED PUBLICATION: Civel-Mazens, Matthieu; Crosta, Xavier; Cortese, Giuseppe; Michel, Elisabeth; Mazaud, Alain; Ther, Olivier; Ikehara, Minoru; Itaki, Takuya (2021): Impact of the Agulhas Return Current on the oceanography of the Kerguelen Plateau region, Southern Ocean, over the last 40 kyrs. Quaternary Science Reviews, 251, 106711, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106711

  • Measurements of partial and total column of several atmospheric trace gases (e.g.O3, HCl, N2O, CH4, HNO3, ClONO2, HCN, HF, OCS, CO, C2H6, CFC-11, CFC-12, COF2 + others). Measurements are made with Bruker Fourier transform spectrometers, using direct sunlight (or moonlight) at infrared wavelengths (700-10000cm-1). The Bruker FTS instruments have two liquid nitrogen cooled detectors (inSb & HgCdTe) and six optical filters. For 2014-2016 seasons, operated in parallel with Bruker 120M for intercomparison studies. Bruker 120M will then be retried. Bruker 125HR will replace it. Data are routinely analysed for HNO3, HCl, CH4, N2O, CO, ClONO2, HF, C2H6, HCN, and 10+ other species measurable. Information on other trace gases is contained in the spectra, not yet analysed/retrieved. “Raw” data are times and recorded interferograms which are Fourier transformed into spectra. “Derived” data are column amounts, and in some cases limited vertical profile information, of atmospheric trace gases. Technique for vertical profile information uses "optimal estimation" to extract information from pressure broadening of absorption lines: SFIT2/SFIT4. The original solar tracker was replaced with a newer tracker in December 2017, active tracking of sun now possible. A Bruker EM27-Sun operated for a summer season at AHTS, to access capability. Measurements of total column CO2, CH4 and CO. Data archived as part of the COCCON network. Instrument timeline: - Bomen DA2 FTS 1990-1994 (HNO3 and HCl only) - Bruker 120M: 1996-2016 - Bruker 125HR: 2015 – present - EM27-Sun: Campaign based low resolution instrument (CO2, CH4 and CO only). February 2016 and then November 2020 – February 2021 GET DATA: https://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/ndacc/data.html?station=arrival.heights GET DATA (EM27-Sun): https://www.imk-asf.kit.edu/english/COCCON.php

  • In collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed close to the bottom depth near the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.275700, lon:164.067300) on 5 February 2017 as a part of the ANA07C research cruise, and it was recovered on 5 March 2018. To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of deep water near the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/023da26f-ba92-43ee-ab54-8ec5fbcf133b

  • The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069a. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations. The secondary experiment, WWLLN, uses exactly the same VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the "Scott Base" measurements made at Arrival Heights or near the Hatherton Lab (depending on noise levels). WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with standard WWLLN software, with GPS timing. GET DATA: https://wwlln.net/

  • Climate data have been collected at Scott Base continuously since 1957 and more recently from Arrival Heights and is one of the longest continuous climate records in Antarctica. Climate parameters measured include: wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and global, diffuse and direct solar radiation. Climate data are collected on a daily basis from both sites. At Scott Base, this takes two forms: a standard daily observation at 0900 NZDT, and continuous data collection at 10 minute and hourly intervals using a CR10X data logger. The initial record of the 0900 daily observations began on 1 March 1957 with air temperature, air pressure, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation being measured with standard instrumentation (wind measurements since 1972). This record constitutes the reference record. In January 1997 an electronic weather station (EWS) was added to collect and archive 10 minute and hourly data. The daily manual observations continued so as to provide a continuous reference and daily record. Historically, Arrival Heights only had a wind recorder (since January 1984). A data logger was installed in January 1999 and measured air temperature, relative humidity and global solar radiation using a secondary network sensor, as well as wind speed and direction. A barometric pressure sensor was installed in 2001. A standard 10m mast was installed and all sensors were moved to the new Arrival Heights laboratory in 2007. 10-minute and hourly data are recorded. Data are retrieved and archived from both automatic stations daily, as well as manual observations from Scott Base and available on New Zealand's national climate database. From February 2019, mercury theremometers and barometers were removed from Scott Base and Arrival Heights. Where applicable, these were replaced with electronic instruments. A weighing precipitation gauge was also installed in February 2019 for the measurement of solid precipitation at Scott Base. GET DATA: https://cliflo.niwa.co.nz/

  • In collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute and NIWA, an oceanographic mooring was deployed to the North of the Drygalski Ice Tongue (lat:-75.360767, lon:164.746467) on March 2020, and it was recovered on March 2022 (ANA12D research cruise). To monitor physical properties (Temperature, Salinity, Current) of ocean water in the north of the Drygalski Ice Tongue. GET DATA: https://kpdc.kopri.re.kr/search/3e3f6f5f-4989-4263-b351-d8df3b1e0471

  • Measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) made with a Microwave Chlorine Monoxide Millimeter Wave Spectrometer (ground-based). The instrument (ClOe1) was established in January of 1996 at Scott Base and decommissioned in October 2023. A replacement radiometer (ClOe4) was installed at Scott Base in February 2023 (an overlap in the data for timeseries continuity purposes). These data are produced in collaboration with State University of New York (SUNY) Stoney Brook and Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). “Raw” data are times and recorded microwave emission spectra. “Derived” data are column amounts and vertical profile information of chlorine monoxide (ClO). The instrument has acquired the nickname "CloeTechnique" for vertical profile information uses "optimal estimation" to extract information from pressure broadening of ClO emission line. Significant failure in early 2018 only fixed in November 2018. No data in the July - October 2018 period. Data is held at NRL and in the NDACC database. Data are available as monthly .ndm files, and additional metadata are available in the header. Instrument timeline: - ClOe1 1996-2023 - ClOe4 2023 – present GET DATA: https://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/ndacc/data.html?station=scott.base#