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  • As part of the Scott Base Redevelopment Marine Monitoring Programme, the impact of Scott Base's activities on the local marine environment was assessed. Sampling took place at three sites around Hut Point Peninsula on the southern half of Ross Island during October – November 2019 to assess anthropogenic contamination. Two acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP; Nortek Signature 500) were deployed, and set with a 2-minute sampling period in 1m vertical depth bins from the seabed to the underside of the ice. Instrument heads were kept ~0.5 m beneath the under-surface. ADCP data were downloaded, extracted from their raw formats, and averaged into 10-minute intervals. A magnetic declination of 141.09° E was applied to the measured current direction to correct the readings to reflect true north and a pressure offset was applied to standardise depths relative to ambient air pressure at the seawater surface. Information on habitats and benthic epifauna assemblage composition were collected using high resolution video across 2 25m transects at ~22m depth. Multiple overlapping passes were made across the seabed transects at ~0.5 m depth contours between ~20 – 26 m in order to create a 2D orthomosaic image of each site. Analysis of the diver-collected video was done using individual frames. The video along each transect was divided into 10 equal time segments and still frames were taken at random from the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth segments. Eight video frames were analysed per transect (i.e., n=8 per transect and n=16 per site) by one individual to minimise observer bias. Sediment samples were collected by divers to determine contaminant concentrations and sediment characteristics (sediment particle size composition, organic matter content, organic carbon content and algal pigment content) at each site. Sponge species (Sphaerotylus antarcticus and Laternula elliptica) were collected for tissue contaminant analysis. Full description of methods is available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-023-03181-1 GET DATA: drew.lohrer@niwa.co.nz

  • Ocean–atmosphere–sea ice interactions are key to understanding the future of the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic continent. Regional coupled climate–sea ice–ocean models have been developed for several polar regions; however the conservation of heat and mass fluxes between coupled models is often overlooked due to computational difficulties. At regional scale, the non-conservation of water and energy can lead to model drift over multi-year model simulations. Here we present P-SKRIPS version 1, a new version of the SKRIPS coupled model setup for the Ross Sea region. Our development includes a full conservation of heat and mass fluxes transferred between the climate (PWRF) and sea ice–ocean (MITgcm) models. We examine open water, sea ice cover, and ice sheet interfaces. We show the evidence of the flux conservation in the results of a 1-month-long summer and 1-month-long winter test experiment. P-SKRIPS v.1 shows the implications of conserving heat flux over the Terra Nova Bay and Ross Sea polynyas in August 2016, eliminating the mismatch between total flux calculation in PWRF and MITgcm up to 922 W m−2. RELATED PUBLICATION: https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-16-3355-2023 GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7739062

  • Ocean–atmosphere–sea ice interactions are key to understanding the future of the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic continent. Regional coupled climate–sea ice–ocean models have been developed for several polar regions; however the conservation of heat and mass fluxes between coupled models is often overlooked due to computational difficulties. At regional scale, the non-conservation of water and energy can lead to model drift over multi-year model simulations. Here we present P-SKRIPS version 1, a new version of the SKRIPS coupled model setup for the Ross Sea region. Our development includes a full conservation of heat and mass fluxes transferred between the climate (PWRF) and sea ice–ocean (MITgcm) models. We examine open water, sea ice cover, and ice sheet interfaces. We show the evidence of the flux conservation in the results of a 1-month-long summer and 1-month-long winter test experiment. P-SKRIPS v.1 shows the implications of conserving heat flux over the Terra Nova Bay and Ross Sea polynyas in August 2016, eliminating the mismatch between total flux calculation in PWRF and MITgcm up to 922 W m−2. RELATED PUBLICATION: https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-16-3355-2023 GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7739059

  • The WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Scott Base in November 2015 by Dr. James Brundell and Ms. Emma Douma as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K060-1516-A. The sensor measures the electric field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz) and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The antenna is located behind the Hatherton lab. It was installed due to increasing manmade electromagnetic noise levels in the "quiet zone" at Arrival Heights. The observations from this antenna are now the primary WWLLN feed from Ross Island, the Arrival Height's magnetic field antenna is now a backup. WWLLN, uses the VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the Scott Base measurements. WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. GET DATA: https://space.physics.otago.ac.nz/aarddvark/

  • Ultraviolet radiation measurements over the spectral region 290-450 nm with a high precision spectro-radiometer. The spectro-radiometer was installed at Arrival Heights as a two month (November 2006 – January 2007) blind inter-comparison with the established measurement programme run by Biospherical Instruments for the USAP. The data was compared with the USAP data taken simultaneously. These data are held internally by NIWA. GET DATA: contact dan.smale@niwa.co.nz

  • The AARDDVARK/WWLLN Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Sensor was installed at Arrival Heights from 10-15 December 2008 by Dr Craig J. Rodger and Dr. James Brundell as part of Antarctica New Zealand Event K069a. The sensor measures the magnetic field in the Very Low Frequency radio range (~500 Hz-50 kHz), and passes it to a PC which processes the data for the experiments. The primary experiment is the AARDDVARK observations. The secondary experiment, WWLLN, uses exactly the same VLF feed but processes it to detect the radio-wave pulses from lightning. WWLLN observations are sent to a central processing computer to determine the time and location of lightning pulses all over the globe. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is an experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF) network of sensors being developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The network exploits the considerable electromagnetic power radiated by lightning as "sferics" present in the VLF band. By combining radio-pulse observations from at least 5 stations, the WWLLN central processing computers can determine the location of the original lightning discharge. As the radio-pulse observations are immediately sent back across the internet to the central processing computers locations are generated within ~10 s of the discharge, and thus near real time. There are currently about 70 active VLF receiving stations operating in the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network, including the "Scott Base" measurements made at Arrival Heights or near the Hatherton Lab (depending on noise levels). WWLLN observations are continuously transmitted to one of the WWLLN primary servers, in this case flash.ess.washington.edu at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Two near-orthogonal magnetic field loops measuring VLF electromagnetic waves. The centre of the antenna is at 77° 49.790' S, 166° 39.438' E, based on a GPS measurement with 1 m accuracy. Logging is undertaken with standard WWLLN software, with GPS timing. GET DATA: https://wwlln.net/

  • Ground-based electromagnetic induction (EM) surveys of sea ice and sub-ice platelet layer thicknesses were carried out on land-fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica in November of 2011, 2013, 2016 and 2017. The EM data was acquired using a frequency-domain Geonics Ltd EM31-MK2 instrument mounted on a sledge and towed by skidoo. The thicknesses of total ice (sea ice plus the snow layer) and the SPL were simultaneously retrieved from the EM31 measured response using the processing method of Irvin (2018) (refer to pages 89-98). A correction for the addition of the snow layer was applied to obtain to EM measured Sea Ice (emSI) thickness according to section 2.3 of Brett et al. 2019. Related Publication: Brett, G. M., Irvin, A., Rack, W., Haas, C., Langhorne, P. J., & Leonard, G. H. (2020). Variability in the distribution of fast ice and the sub-ice platelet layer near McMurdo Ice Shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2019JC015678. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015678 GET DATA: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.909889

  • Data includes estimates of abundance of seaweed taxa on the seafloor across the Northern Victoria Land coast, Ross Sea, Antarctica. This includes: - Metadata of video transects - Seaweed density across transects - Modelled outputs of light attenuation across sites. Descriptions: - "Antarctic_Seaweed_Metadata_TAN2101_TAN2302_Dryad.xlsx" - Metadata of video transects, date and time, locations, gear, depth, distance covered. - "Antarctic_Seaweeds_TAN2101_TAN2302.csv" - Density of seaweed functional groups across video transects - "Light_transects_TAN2021_TAN2302.csv" - Outputs of light modelling for seafloor regions of the Ross Sea - "Antarctic_Seaweed_RScript_Tait_etal_2024.txt" - R sripts used to plot, analyse and model the above datasets Further details are provided at: Tait, L.W., Chin, C., Nelson, W. et al. Deep-living and diverse Antarctic seaweeds as potentially important contributors to global carbon fixation. Commun Earth Environ 5, 205 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-024-01362-2 GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.w6m905qwz

  • This mooring timeseries compilation contains temperature, salinity, current velocity measured from a wide range of marine instrument in the Southern Ocean (90°S-60°S) since 1975. It provides with an opportunity to investigate the broad scale climatology of the Southern Ocean shelf dynamics and shelf connecitivity of dense shelf water and freshwater propogation, and facilitate the timeseries analysis across various timescales. GET DATA: https://doi.org/10.17882/99922

  • Acoustic volume backscatter measurements were made by an ASL Environmental Sciences Acoustic Zooplankton Fish Profiler (AZFP) operating at four-frequencies (125 kHz, 200 kHz, 455 kHz and 769 kHz). README: https://store.pangaea.de/Publications/Robinson-etal_2020/AZFP2017_README.pdf Further details are provided at: Frazer, E. K., Langhorne, P. J., Leonard, G. H., Robinson, N. J., & Schumayer, D. (2020). Observations of the size distribution of frazil ice in an Ice Shelf Water plume. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL090498. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090498